Annual report and accounts 2012

Summary of the principal accounting policies

OAO Severstal and Subsidiaries
Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
3. Summary of the principal accounting policies

for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010
(Amounts expressed in thousands of US dollars, except as otherwise stated)

The following significant accounting policies have been consistently applied in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements throughout the Group.

a. Basis of consolidation

Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are those enterprises controlled, directly or indirectly, by the Parent Company. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in these consolidated financial statements from the date that control effectively commences until the date that control effectively ceases. The non-controlling interests represent the non-controlling shareholders’ proportion of the net identifiable assets of the subsidiaries, including the non-controlling shareholders’ share of fair value adjustments on acquisitions. The non-controlling interests are presented in the statement of financial position within equity, separately from the parent’s shareholders’ equity.

Intra-group balances and transactions, and any unrealized gains arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated in preparing these consolidated financial statements; unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides an evidence of impairment of the asset transferred.

Acquisition of Subsidiaries

The purchase method of accounting was used to account for the acquisition of subsidiaries by the Group.

The initial accounting for a business combination involves identifying and determining the fair values to be assigned to the acquiree’s identifiable assets, the liabilities assumed and the consideration transferred. If the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete by the end of the period in which the combination is effected, the Group accounts for the combination using the provisional values for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. The Group recognizes any adjustments to those provisional values as a result of completing the initial accounting within twelve months from the acquisition date. As a result goodwill or gain from bargain purchase is adjusted accordingly.

Comparative information for the periods before the completion of the initial accounting for the acquisition is presented as if the initial accounting had been completed at the acquisition date.

Accounting for business combinations of entities under common control

IFRS provides no guidance on accounting for business combinations of entities under common control. Management adopted the accounting policy for such transactions based on the relevant guidance of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (‘US GAAP’). Management believes that this approach and the accounting policy disclosed below are in compliance with IFRS.

Acquisitions of controlling interests in companies that were previously under the control of the Majority Shareholder are accounted for as if the acquisition had occurred at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented or, if later, at the date on which control was obtained by the Majority Shareholder. The assets and liabilities acquired are recognized at their book values. The components of equity of the acquired companies are added to the same components within Group equity, except that any share capital of the acquired companies is recorded as a part of additional capital. The cash consideration for such acquisitions is recognized as a liability to or a reduction of receivables from related parties, with a corresponding reduction in equity, from the date the acquired company is included in these consolidated financial statements until the cash consideration is paid. Parent Company shares issued in consideration for the acquired companies are recognized from the moment the acquired companies are included in these financial statements.

No goodwill is recognized where the Group acquires additional interests in the acquired companies from the Majority shareholder. The difference between the share of net assets acquired and consideration transferred is recognized directly in equity.

Business combination achieved in stages

In a business combination achieved in stages, the Group remeasures its previously held equity interest in the associates or joint ventures at its acquisition date fair value and recognizes the resulting gain or loss, if any, in profit or loss in the income statement.

Investments in associates

Associates are those enterprises in which the Group has significant influence, but does not have control over the financial and operating policies. 

Investments in associates are accounted for under the equity method and are initially recognized at cost, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases. Subsequent changes in the carrying value reflect the post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of net assets of the associate and goodwill impairment charges, if any, after adjustments to align the accounting policies with those of the Group. When the Group’s share of losses exceeds the carrying amount of the associate, the carrying amount is reduced to nil and recognition of further losses is discontinued, except to the extent that the Group has incurred obligations in respect of the associate.

Unrealized gains on transactions between the Group and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the associates; unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.

Interests in joint ventures

A joint venture is a contractual arrangement whereby the Group and other parties undertake an economic activity when the strategic financial and operating policy decisions relating to the activities of the joint venture require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

Where a Group entity undertakes its activities under joint venture arrangements directly, the Group’s share of jointly controlled assets and any liabilities incurred jointly with other venturers are recognized in its financial statements and classified according to their nature. Liabilities and expenses incurred directly in respect of interests in jointly controlled assets are accounted for on the accrual basis. Income from the sale or use of the Group’s share of the output of jointly controlled assets, and its share of joint venture expenses, are recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transactions will flow to the Group and their amount can be measured reliably.

Joint venture arrangements that involve the establishment of a separate entity in which each venturer has an interest are referred to as jointly controlled entities. The Group reports its interests in jointly controlled entities using the equity method of accounting whereby an interest in jointly controlled entities is initially recorded at cost and adjusted thereafter for post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of net assets of the joint venture. The income statement reflects the Group’s share of the results of operations of the joint venture.

Unrealized gains on transactions between the Group and its jointly controlled entities are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the joint venture; unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.

Goodwill

Goodwill is measured as the difference between:

  • the aggregate of the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest, and in a business combination achieved in stages, the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer's previously-held equity interest in the acquiree; and
  • the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed.

Goodwill is initially recognized as an asset at cost and is subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill in respect of subsidiaries is disclosed as an intangible asset and goodwill relating to associates and jointly controlled entities is included within the carrying value of the investments in these entities.

No goodwill is recognized where the Group acquires additional interests in the acquired companies (acquisitions of non-controlling interest). The difference between the share of net assets acquired and the consideration transferred is recognized directly in equity.

Where goodwill forms a part of a cash-generating unit and the part of the operations within that unit is disposed of, the goodwill associated with that operation is included in the carrying amount of the operation when determining the gain or loss on disposal of the operation.

Gain from bargain purchase represents the excess of the Group’s share in the fair value of acquired identifiable assets and the liabilities assumed over the consideration transferred, and in a business combination achieved in stages, the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer's previously-held equity interest in the acquire. It is recognized in the income statement at the date of the acquisition.

b. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the functional currency of each entity at the foreign exchange rate ruling on the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated to the functional currency of each entity at the foreign exchange rate ruling at that date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated to the functional currency of the entity at the foreign exchange rate ruling at the date of the transaction. Foreign exchange gains and losses arising on the translation are recognized in the income statement. 

c. Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources

Expenditures associated with search for specific mineral resources are recognized as exploration and evaluation assets. The following expenditure comprises cost of exploration and evaluation assets:

  • obtaining of the rights to explore and evaluate mineral reserves and resources including costs directly related to this acquisition;
  • researching and analyzing existing exploration data;
  • conducting geological studies, exploratory drilling and sampling;
  • examining and testing extraction and treatment methods;
  • compiling prefeasibility and feasibility studies;
  • activities in relation to evaluating the technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a mineral resource.

Administration and other overhead costs are charged to the cost of exploration and evaluation assets only if directly related to an exploration and evaluation project.

If a project does not prove viable, all irrecoverable exploration and evaluation expenditure associated with the project net of any related impairment allowances is written off to the income statement.

The Group measures its exploration and evaluation assets at cost and classifies as tangible or intangible according to the nature of the assets acquired and applies the classification consistently. Exploration and evaluation assets considered to be tangible are recorded as a component of property, plant and equipment at cost less impairment charges. Otherwise, they are recorded as intangible assets, such as licenses. To the extent that tangible asset is consumed in developing an intangible asset, the amount reflecting that consumption is capitalized as a part of the cost of the intangible asset.

As the asset is not available for use, it is not depreciated. All exploration and evaluation assets are monitored for indications of impairment.

An exploration and evaluation asset is no longer classified as such when the technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a mineral resource are demonstrable and the development of the deposit is sanctioned by management. The carrying amount of such exploration and evaluation asset is reclassified into development asset.

d. Development expenditure

Development expenditure includes costs directly attributable to the construction of a mine and the related infrastructure and is accumulated separately for each area of interest. Development expenditure is capitalized and is recorded as a component of property, plant and equipment or intangible assets, as appropriate. No depreciation is charged on the development expenditure before the start of commercial production.

To the extent that revenue arises from test production during the development stage, an amount is charged from development expenditure to the cost of sales so as to reflect a zero net margin.  

e. Stripping costs

The Group separates two different types of stripping costs that are incurred in surface mining activity:

  • Stripping activity asset; and
  • Current stripping costs.

Stripping activity asset is created as part of usual surface activity in order to obtain improved access to further quantities of minerals that will be mined in future periods.

Current stripping costs are costs that are incurred in order to mine the mineral ore only in current period.

The Group recognizes a stripping activity asset if, and only if, all of the following are met:

  • it is probable that the future economic benefit (improved access to the ore body) associated with the stripping activity will flow to the entity;
  • the entity can identify the component of the ore body for which access has been improved; and
  • the costs relating to the improved access to that component can be measured reliably.

After initial recognition, stripping activity assets are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss. Depreciation is calculated using the units of production method.

f. Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalized. In the case of assets constructed by the Group, related works and direct project overheads are included in cost. The cost of replacing part of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized in the carrying amount of the item if it is probable that the future economic benefits embodied within the part will flow to the Group and its cost can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized. Repair and maintenance expenses are charged to the income statement as incurred. Gains or losses on disposals of property, plant and equipment are recognized in the income statement.

Depreciation is provided so as to write off property, plant and equipment over its expected useful life. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line basis, except for depreciation on vehicles and certain metal-rolling equipment, which is calculated on the basis of mileage and units of production, respectively. The estimated useful lives of assets are reviewed regularly and revised when necessary.

The principal periods over which assets are depreciated are as follows:

Buildings and constructions: 20 – 50 years
Plant and machinery: 10 – 20 years
Other productive assets: 5 – 20 years
Infrastructure assets: 5 – 50 years 

g. Lease

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the Group. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

Assets held under finance leases are initially recognized as assets of the Group at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the statement of financial position as a finance lease obligation.

Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are charged directly to the income statement as a part of interest expense.

The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets is consistent with that for depreciable assets, which are owned. If there is no reasonable certainty that the Group will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is fully depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or its useful life.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.

h. Intangible assets (excluding goodwill)

Intangible assets acquired by the Group are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.

Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line basis and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each annual reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

The table below presents the useful lives of intangible assets:

Mineral rights: 12 - 25 years
Software: 3 - 10 years
Other intangible assets: 3 - 50 years

The major components of the other intangible assets include capitalized favorable contracts and land lease rights. Amortization of intangible assets is included in the captions “Cost of sales” and “General and administrative expenses” in the consolidated income statement.

i. Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of goodwill is tested for impairment annually. At each reporting date the Group assesses whether there is any indication of impairment of the Group’s other assets. If any such indication exists, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount.

Calculation of recoverable amount

For financial assets carried at amortized cost, the amount of the impairment is the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and its recoverable amount that is the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate. For other assets the recoverable amount is the greater of the fair value less cost to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. For an asset that does not generate cash inflows largely independent of those from other assets, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

Reversals of impairment

An impairment loss in respect of a held-to-maturity investment, loan or receivable is reversed if the subsequent increase in recoverable amount can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. In respect of other assets, an impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized.

j. Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. The cost of inventories is based on the weighted average principle and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories and bringing them to their existing location and condition. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, cost includes an appropriate share of production overheads. Allowances are recorded against slow-moving and obsolete inventories.

k. Financial assets

Financial assets include cash and cash equivalents, investments, and loans and receivables.

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash balances, cash deposits and highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Financial assets are classified into the following specified categories: financial assets ‘at fair value through profit or loss’ (FVTPL), ‘held-to-maturity’ investments, ‘available-for-sale’ (AFS) financial assets and ‘loans and receivables’. The classification depends on the nature and purpose of the financial assets and is determined at the time of initial recognition.

Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the carrying value of a financial asset held at amortized cost and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial asset, or, where appropriate, a shorter period.

Income is recognized on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets designated as at FVTPL.

Financial assets at FVTPL

Financial assets are classified as at FVTPL where the financial asset is either held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.

A financial asset is classified as held for trading if:

  • it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the near future; or
  • it is a part of an identified portfolio of financial instruments that the Group manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking.

A financial asset other than a financial asset held for trading may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:

  • such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise; or
  • the financial asset forms part of a group of financial instruments, which are managed and performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Group's documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the grouping is provided internally on that basis.

Financial assets at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any resultant gain or loss recognized in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in the income statement incorporates any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset.

Held-to-maturity investments

Non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturity dates that the Group has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as held-to-maturity investments. Held-to-maturity investments are recorded at amortized cost using the effective interest method less any impairment.

Loans and receivables

Trade receivables, loans, and other receivables that have fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market are classified as loans and receivables. Loans and receivables are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment. Interest income is recognized by applying the effective interest rate, except for short-term receivables when the recognition of interest would be immaterial.

AFS financial assets

Available for sale financial assets are those non-derivative financial assets that are not classified as financial assets at FVTPL, held-to-maturity or loans and receivables and are stated at fair value. Listed shares that are traded in an active market are stated at their market value. Investments in unlisted shares that do not have a quoted market price in an active market are measured at management’s estimate of fair value. Gains and losses arising from changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income with the exception of impairment losses, which are recognized directly in the income statement. Where the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the equity is included in the income statement for the period.

Dividends on AFS equity instruments are recognized in the income statement when the Group’s right to receive the dividends is established.

Derecognition of financial assets

The Group derecognizes a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire or it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another entity.

l. Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at FVTPL’ or ‘other financial liabilities’.

Financial liabilities at FVTPL

Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL where the financial liability is either held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.

A financial liability is classified as held for trading if:

  • it has been incurred principally for the purpose of repurchasing in the near future; or
  • it is a part of an identified portfolio of financial instruments that the Group manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking.

A financial liability other than a financial liability held for trading may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:

  • such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise; or
  • the financial liability forms a part of a group of financial instruments, which are managed and where performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Group's documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the grouping is provided internally on that basis.

Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any resultant gain or loss recognized in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in profit or loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability.

Other financial liabilities

Other financial liabilities, including borrowings, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs. Borrowing costs on loans specifically for the purchase or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as a part of the cost of the asset they are financing.

Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, with interest expense recognized in the income statement.  

Derecognition of financial liabilities

The Group derecognizes financial liabilities when, and only when, the Group’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire.

m. Hedging instruments

The Group holds cash flow hedging instruments in order to hedge the exposure to variability in cash flows that is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction and which could affect profit or loss.

Changes in the fair value of the derivative hedging instrument designated as a cash flow hedge are recognized in other comprehensive income to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognized in profit or loss.     

If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss that has been previously recognized in other comprehensive income remains in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. When the hedged item is a non-financial asset, the amount that has been recognized in other comprehensive income is transferred to the carrying amount of the asset when it is recognized. In other cases the amount recognized in other comprehensive income is transferred to profit or loss in the same period that the hedged item affects profit or loss.

n. Dividends payable

Dividends are recognized as a liability in the period in which they are authorized by the shareholders.

o. Other taxes and contributions

Other taxes and contributions are taxes and mandatory contributions paid to the government, or government controlled agencies, that are calculated on a variety of bases, but exclude taxes calculated on profits, value added taxes calculated on revenues and purchases and social security costs calculated on wages and salaries. Social security costs are included in cost of sales, distribution expenses and general and administrative expenses in accordance with the nature of related wages and salaries expenses.

p. Income tax

Income tax on the profit for the year comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognized in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income.

Current tax expense is calculated by each entity on the pre-tax income determined in accordance with the tax law of the country, in which the entity is incorporated, using tax rates enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Deferred tax is calculated using the balance sheet method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting and taxation purposes.  Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to the temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.

Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which these assets can be utilized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax income will be realized.

Deferred tax is not recognized in respect of the following:

  • investments in subsidiaries where the Group is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future;
  • if it arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss;
  • initial recognition of goodwill.

q. Provisions

Employee benefits

The Group pays retirement, healthcare and other long-term benefits to its employees. 

The Group has two types of retirement benefits: defined contribution plans and defined benefit plans. Defined contribution plans are post-employment benefit plans under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts in respect of those benefits. The Group’s only obligation is to pay contributions as they fall due, including contributions to the Russian Federation State pension fund. Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.

Defined benefit plans are post-employment benefits plans other than defined contribution plans. The Group uses an actuarial valuation method for measurement of the present value of post-employment benefit obligations and related current service cost. This involves the use of demographic assumptions about the future characteristics of the current and former employees who are eligible for benefits (mortality, both during and after employment, rates of employee turnover, disability and early retirement, etc.) as well as financial assumptions (discount rate, future salary and benefit levels, etc.). The discount rate used is the yield at the balance sheet date on high quality corporate bonds for a respective country that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the Group’s obligations. The calculation of the Group’s net obligation in respect of defined retirement benefit plans is performed annually using the projected unit credit method. In accordance with this method, the Group’s net obligation is calculated separately for each defined benefit plan. Any actuarial gain or loss arising from the calculation of the retirement benefit liability is fully recognized in other comprehensive income.

Other long-term employee benefits include various compensations, non-monetary benefits and a long-term incentive program.

Decommissioning liability

The Group has environmental liabilities related to restoration of soil and other related works, which are due upon the closures of certain of its production sites. Decommissioning liabilities are estimated case-by-case based on available information, taking into account applicable local legal requirements. The estimation is made using existing technology, at current prices, and discounted using a real discount rate. Future decommissioning costs, discounted to net present value, are capitalized and the corresponding decommissioning liability raised as soon as the constructive obligation to incur such costs arises. Future decommissioning costs are capitalized in property, plant and equipment and are depreciated over the life of the related asset. The effect of the time value of money on the decommissioning liability is recognized in the consolidated income statement as an interest expense. Ongoing rehabilitation costs are expensed when incurred.

Onerous contracts

A provision for onerous contracts is recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Group from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Group recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

Other provisions

Other provisions are recognized in the statement of financial position when the Group has a legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

r. Share capital

Ordinary shares

Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of ordinary shares and share options are recognized as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects.

Repurchase of issued shares

When share capital recognized as equity is repurchased, the amount of the consideration paid which includes directly attributable costs, is net of any tax effects, and is recognized as a deduction from equity. Repurchased shares are classified as treasury shares and are presented as a deduction from total equity. When treasury shares are sold or reissued subsequently, the amount received is recognized as an increase in equity, and the resulting surplus or deficit on the transaction is transferred to/from retained earnings.

s. Operating income and expenses

The Group presents profit or loss from operations, which includes various types of income and expenses arising in the course of production and sale of the Group’s products, disposal of property, plant and equipment, participation in joint ventures and associates, securities operations and other Group’s regular activities.

Certain items are presented separately from profit or loss from operations by virtue of their size, incidence or nature to enable a full understanding of the Group’s financial performance. Such items, which are included in profit or loss before financing and taxation, primarily include impairment of non-current assets, negative goodwill and other non-operating income and expenses, as, for example, gain or loss from disposal of subsidiaries and associates and charitable donations.

t. Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances.

When goods are sold or services are rendered in exchange for dissimilar goods or services, the revenue is measured at the fair value of the goods or services received, adjusted by the amount of cash or cash equivalents transferred. When the fair value of the goods or services received cannot be measured reliably, the revenue is measured at the fair value of the goods or services given up, adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalents transferred.

Sale of goods

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized in the income statement when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer; the Group retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold; the amount of revenue can be measured reliably; it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

Rendering of services

Revenue from a contract to provide services is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract.

u. Interest income

Interest income is recognized in the income statement on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount.

v. Interest expense

Interest expense is recognized in the income statement as it accrues, taking into account the effective yield on the liability.

w. Gain on remeasurement and disposal of financial investments

Gain on remeasurement and disposal of financial investments comprises dividend income (except for dividends from equity associates and joint ventures), realized and unrealized gains on financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, realized gains and impairment losses on available-for-sale and held-to-maturity investments.

x. Earnings per share

Earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year, assuming that shares issued in consideration for the companies acquired from the Majority Shareholder were issued from the moment these companies are included in these consolidated financial statements.

y. Discontinued operations

Discontinued operations are disclosed when a component of the Group either has been disposed of during the reporting period, or is classified as held for sale at the reporting date. This condition is regarded as met only when the disposal is highly probable within one year from the date of classification.

The comparative income statement is presented as if the operation had been discontinued from the beginning of the comparative period.

Assets and liabilities of a disposal group are presented in the statement of financial position separately from other assets and liabilities. Comparative information related to discontinued operations is not amended in the balance sheet.

z. Segment reporting

An operating segment is a component of the Group that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, including revenues and expenses that relate to transactions with any of the Group’s other components. An operating segment’s operating results are reviewed regularly by the CEO to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance, and for which discrete financial information is available.

The reportable segments’ amounts in the disclosure are stated before intersegment elimination and are measured on the same basis as those in the consolidated financial statements, except that:

  • non-monetary long-term investments in subsidiaries are translated into the presentation currency at the historic exchange rate;
  • no impairment is recognized on investments in subsidiaries.

Inter-segment pricing is determined on an arm’s length basis.

Segment capital expenditure is the total cost incurred during the period to acquire property, plant and equipment, and intangible assets other than goodwill.

aa. Government grants

Government grants are recognized when there is a reasonable assurance that they will be received and the Group will comply with the conditions associated with the grant. Government grants related to assets are presented as a deduction from the cost of the asset.